In simple terms, sunlight hits a photovoltaic cell, causing electrons to move through a semiconductor and generating an electric current. This phenomenon is referred to as the photovoltaic effect.

This illustration depicts the process within a single photovoltaic cell.

An intriguing aspect of solar energy lies in the lack of moving parts within solar panels or photovoltaic systems. These panels remain still, untouched by motion, vibrations, stress, component deterioration, or misalignment. Unlike devices like pumps, motors, and turbines that rely on mechanical movement and are prone to wearing out, solar panels facilitate all the necessary reactions for electricity generation without any physical motion, as they harness the power of the Sun.

Essentially, a solar cell rapidly converts the radiant energy of the Sun into electrical energy.

As a brief refresher, let’s revisit the fundamental components of a complete solar system.

In this section, we will take a deeper dive into the intricate mechanisms of solar energy and thoroughly examine the constituents of a solar system, including the diverse elements that constitute a PV system.

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